Print version ISSN 1517-2805
Online version ISSN 3636



Editorial Procedures


The “Revista de Etologia" publishes research articles, theoretical articles, critical review articles, book reviews, short communications and readers' letters on any animal behavior topic including human behavior. Submissions must indicate which subareas of the journal they belong to: Applied ethology, Conservation behavior, Neuroethology, Behavioral ecology, Evolutionary psychology, Evolution of behavior, Animal cognition, Theories of behavior.

The decision about the publication of a manuscript will be based on the reviews provided by ad hoc referees, as well as the associate and in-chief editors.

Manuscripts should be submitted through the online system SciELO Publishing System. (

The accompanying cover letter should contain the full name of the authors, complete mailing address, including e-mail and an indication of the area to which the article fits, as well as an indication of up to five names as possible reviewers. Studies involving ethical handling of animals should indicate in the text of the method section how these issues were resolved (ethics certificate).

Manuscripts are pre-evaluated regarding their involvement in large areas of “Revista de Etologia" and then forwarded to an associate editor responsible for choosing ad hoc consultants, researchers recognized in the area of work to be assessed, asking to review the manuscript, approving or rejecting it or suggesting modifications.

The final decision about the publication of the manuscript will be based on the recomendations of the ad hoc consultants, the associate editor of the area and the editor in-chief.
It is expected that the acceptance or refusal is expected to be communicated within 90 days.



Presentation of Manuscripts


All manuscripts must be written in English in order to reach a large readership. Manuscripts must be formatted using Times New Roman font, type body 12, spaced 1.5 to show 35 lines per page, maintaining 3 cm of margins. File format accepted are .doc, .docx, or PDf with tabeles and figures incorporated into the submitted file.

Scientific notes: no systematic studies or exploratory behavior areas or taxa underrepresented in ethological literature

Book Reviews: critical analysis of recent publications in ethology.

Readers´ letters: Letters covering recent topics in the field of ethology, such as reviews of recent articles, prospects for new graduate programs or research areas, etc.

Full articles should not surpass a maximum of 87,500 characters; words+spaces (35 pages); scientific notes and book reviews must have at most 3600 characters (02 pages). A letter may not have more than 1800 characters. Larger manuscripts will only be approved exceptionally.

“Revista de Etologia" adopts the publishing standards of the American Psychological Association (2001).
The manuscript should follow the following sequence: (1) Title page containing article title, full names of authors, affiliations, the author indication to whom correspondence should be sent and his/her institutional address (including email address), suggesting a running title for the page header; as a footnote: Origin of the work (whether it has already been presented in an event, whether it originates from a thesis, etc.), financial support, acknowledgements; (2) abstract, about 850 characters (150 words), with descriptors or keywords (maximum of seven); (3) text; references of the works cited in the text; and, optionally, tables and figures. The figures (in particular pictures), which have to be as few as possible, must have their approximate insertion point indicated in the manuscript text. Abstract must be written in English and a second language, either Portuguese or Spanish.

The tables, each on a separate page, should be prepared in order to be as simple as possible and in a way to be understood without reference to the text, using a subtitle placed on its upper part. The figures, with their captions placed at the bottom, should also be understandable without having to send the reader back to text.

Whether graphics, drawings or photographs, the images should be presented separately from the article text, in excellent graphic quality copy. They must be prepared taking into account the fact that they may be reduced. Photographs and drawings can be presented as trading cards or digitalized versions for high resolution.

The graphics should be sent in the form of JPEG or TIFF file at a resolution of 300dpi or higher.


Citations in the text

Quote from authors in the text

The surname of the authors followed by the year of publication must be presented. In the citations with two authors, the surnames cited in parentheses must be connected by "&"; surnames cited in the text should be linked by "and". Example: Diego and Ferrari (1998) or (Ferrari & Diego, 1998); in articles in English, Diego and Ferrari (1998). Citations with three authors should follow the pattern: Diego, Ferrari & Morroni (1999) or, in quotes in brackets: (Diego, Ferrari & Morroni, 1999).

In the case of citations with more than three authors, always cite the first author's surname followed by "et al.". In quotes from various authors from the same idea or result, observe the alphabetical order of their surnames. Ex.: (Gallup, 1977; Povinelli, 1993, 1996).

In the case of authors with the same surname quotes, indicate the initials of the first names abbreviated. Ex.: (M.M. Oliveira, 1983; Oliveira V.M., 1984).

In the case of articles with the same author, with different dates of publication, cite the author's surname and year of publication in chronological order. Ex.: (Galef, 1985, 1986, 1989) or Galef (1985, 1986, 1989).

In the quotes of articles with the same date of publication and same author, add small letters after the year of publication. Ex.: (Nelson, 1992a, 1992b) and Nelson (1992a, 1992b).

Works whose author is a collective entity should be cited by the name of the entity in full, followed by the year of publication. Ex.: (American Psychological Association, 1994) or American Psychological Association (1994).


Editorial Rules

Citation of information obtained through personal communication should be added in parentheses, "personal communication" and the date after the quote. Ex.: K. Strier (personal communication, July 26, 1999).


Citing Homepage or Web Site

Quote the online address preferably in parentheses after the information. Ex.: ( It is not necessary to list it in the References at the end of the text.


Citation of old and re-edited articles

Quote the date of original publication date followed by the consulted edition. Ex.: Darwin (1859/1979) or (Darwin, 1859/1979).


Textual citation

In the case of literal transcription of a text, enclose it using quotation marks, followed by the author's last name, date and cited page. Ex.: "…mature facial imitation appears in infants, at the same time arises the self-recognition." (Mitchell, 1997, p. 32). Quote of excerpts with 40 or more words must be presented in a separate paragraph without double quotes, starting with the front row (equivalent to five typewriting taps) and ending on the right side without backspace.


Indirect quotation

The indirect quotation (working quote from a secondary source) is used apud. Ex.: Bristowe (1941, apud Costa, 1998). (In the reference list, mention only the work consulted, in this case: Costa, 1998).


Citation of works being published

Use surname of the authors followed by "in press" in parentheses. Ex.: Nogueira-Neto (in press) or (Nogueira-Neto, in press).



Must be presented at the end of text. The arrangement must be in alphabetical order of the author´s last name and must constitute a list headed by the title References. In articles in English: References. In the case of more than one work by the same author, the references should be arranged in chronological order of publication.



Altmann, J. (1980). Baboon mothers and infants. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


Books indicating the edition

Danna, M. F., & Matos, M. A. (1999). Teaching observation: An Introduction (4th ed.). São Paulo: EDICON.


Books translated

Lorenz, K. (1995). The foundations of ethology (P. Cruz & CC Alberts, trads.). Sao Paulo: UNESP. In articles in English: "trans.".


Books indicating volumes

Carterette, C. E., & Friedman, M. P. (Eds.). (1974-1978). Handbook of perception (Vols. 1-10). New York: Academic Press.


Book chapter

Tomanari, G. A. Y. (2001). Concepts and practices in behavior analysis. In HJ Guilhard, MBBP Madi, PB Queiroz, & MC Scoz (Eds.), About behavior and cognition (pp. 120-125). Santo André, SP: ESETec.

*In articles in English: "in". Books in English: "Ed." or "Eds.". Exs .:

Heilman, K. M. (1995). Attention asymmetries. In RJ Davidson & Hugdahl K. (Eds.), Brain asymmetry. Chap.4: Attention and Learning (pp 217-234.). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Dawkins, M. S. (1989). The future of ethology: How many legs are standing on ?. In P. P. Bateson G. & P.

H. Klopfer H. (Eds.), Perspectives in ethology (Vol. 8, pp. 47-54). New York: Plenum Press.

Thesis or dissertations unpublished

Freitas, E. G. F. (1999). “Reproductive investment and growth in male tilapia from Nile”. PhD Thesis, Institute of Biosciences, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP.

Cunha, the S. S. (1992). Past experience effects in building the web of argentata Argiope spider. Dissertation, Institute of Psychology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo.

Works published in the annals of congresses

Deputte, B. (1997). Social ontogeny in primates. Ades C. (Eds.), Proceedings of the XV Annual Meeting of Ethology (pp. 9-23). Sao Paulo: Brazilian Society of Ethology.

Summaries of works presented in congress

Mendes, FDC, Martins, L BR, Pereira, JA, & Marquezan, RF (1999). Behavioral manipulation and fishing in Cebus libidinosus in Goiania Zoo. In Book of Abstracts. IX Brazilian Congress of Primatology (p. 43). Santa Teresa, ES: Brazilian Society of Primatology.

Articles in journals

West, M., King, AP, & Freeberg, TM (1998). Dual signaling During mating in brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). Ethology, 104, 250-267.

*Show the number of the issue in brackets if the paging is reset on every number (and not every volume).Ex .:

Bueno, J. L. O. (1997). The animal imagery. USP Psychology, 8 (2), 165-180.


Documents extracted from electronic sources


White, J. O., & Masunari, S. (2000). Reproductive ecology of Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 in Lagoa da Conceição, the island of Santa Catarina, Brazil [Abstract]. Journal of Biology, 60 (1). Retrieved on 29 December 2000 of the SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library OnLine): Article (full text)

Whitehead, H. (1999). Testing association patterns of social animals. Animal Behaviour, 57 (6). Retrieved on 5 March 2000 of the ProBE (Electronic Library Program):


The copyrights of all published articles belong to the “Revista de Etologia". The reproduction of the articles in other publications requires written permission from the Editorial Committee.

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The copyrights of all published articles belong to the “Revista de Etologia". The reproduction of the articles in other publications requires written permission from the Editorial Committee.





Requests for subscriptions and single copies should be addressed to



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