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Acta Comportamentalia

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PARRA-GARCIA, Eduardo; NIETO, Javier  and  SANCHEZ-CARRASCO, Livia. Choice in pigeons: Analysis through Prisoner's dilemma. Acta comport. [online]. 2014, vol.22, n.3, pp. 247-257. ISSN 0188-8145.

To analyze the effect of different strategies, simulated by a computer, on acquisition of cooperative responses; seven pigeons played the iterated Prisoner´s Dilemma against a simulated opponent pre-programmed to play one of three strategies: (1) doing whatever the pigeon did on the previous trial (Tic-for-Tat, TFT), (2) cooperate or defect randomly on each trial (Random, RND), and (3) cooperate when the pigeon defect and defect when it cooperate (Individualist strategy, I). Each pigeon received differential amounts of access to food following choices of either cooperation key or defection key on each trial, thus it was contingent with the computer´s adopted strategy. Pigeons played against the three strategies (TFT, RND and I) for 30 sessions each, the order of strategies were counterbalanced among subjects. The results showed a higher percentage of cooperation responses when subjects played against TFT strategy. Additionally, the results showed that cooperative responses in TFT condition decreased after pre-exposing subjects to RND or I conditions. The results are discussed in terms of cooperation studies.

Keywords : Cooperation; history effects; pigeons; Prisoner´s dilemma.

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