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Psicologia da Educação

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GARCIA, Silvana Canalhe; BRINO, Rachel de Faria  and  WILLIAMS, Lúcia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque. Risk and resilience in students: a comparative study making use of multiple instruments. Psicol. educ. [online]. 2009, n.28, pp. 23-50. ISSN 1414-6975.

With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of risk and resilience factors involved in child development, this study had the goal of identifying these factors among low-income family students. The present research is descriptive and exploratory searching for correlations among risk factors that hinder the development and resilience factors that this population may present. Multiple instruments were used to allow for statistical analyses which are still little explored in Brazilian resilience research. A total of 107 children (3rd and 4th grades) from an elementary public school in are upstate city of São Paulo responded the Resilience Scale and Parental Styles Inventory. Mothers (57) responded the following instruments: A2 Behavior Scale from Rutter, Family Environment Resources Inventory, Adverse Events Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, Information Form about Social-economic Level and Parental Styles Inventory. Academic performance had been indicated by SARESP (Academic Achievement System of Sao Paulo State). Results characterized families as being economically less favored with poor social support. Common adverse events were associated with economic problems, and difficulties in the relationships of parents. SARESP showed that 28.57% of the children presented low academic achievement. Over 80% of the children evaluated themselves as presenting various resilience factors, such as a positive self-perception, good social skills and contributions from external support. Parental style, assessed by children and mothers was considered of risk. Practically half of the mothers (46%) reported that their children presented high indexes of emotional/behaviors problems. It was verified that for this group, parental styles and behaviors were significantly more negative and academic achievement was inferior when compared with the less behavior problem group. Due to the good academic achievement presented in spite of high number of adverse events suffered, it was found that five children (8% of the total) could be considered resilient. Negative parental practices and behaviors were considered risk factors for its correlation with emotional/behavioral problems, and school supervision from parents and good academic achievement were considered protective factors.

Keywords : Resilience; Parental Styles; Academic Achievement.

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