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CEZAR, Michelle de Almeida  and  COELHO, Mayara Pacheco. Psychiatric reform experiences and brazilian movement consolidation: a literature review. Mental [online]. 2017, vol.11, n.20, pp. 134-151. ISSN 1679-4427.

The prevalence of psychiatric practice hospitalization of the so called "crazy" occurs as a socially appropriate response to emergency conditions of the modern and contemporary societies. The main criticism of the asylum model addressed the closed and authoritarian character of the institution, giving rise to various attempts to reform both the nursing home and the traditional psychiatric knowledge. This paper aimed to present the main experiences of Psychiatric Reform in different countries and in the Brazilian context. Literature review was used as a methodological resource. The various experiences of Psychiatric Reform emerged from the criticism of the asylum model of treatment. Institutional Psychotherapy and Therapeutic Communities are configured as restricted asylum reforms; Sector Psychiatry and Preventive Psychiatry exceeded the scope of asylum; and Antipsychiatry and Democratic Psychiatry promoted breaks with previous models. In Brazil, Psychiatric Reform is understood as a complex social process that requires changes in four interdependent dimensions: theoretical-conceptual, legal-political, technical-assistance and sociocultural.

Keywords : hospitals; psychiatric; mental health; deinstitutionalization.

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