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Psicologia: teoria e prática

Print version ISSN 1516-3687

Psicol. teor. prat. vol.21 no.3 São Paulo sept./Dec. 2019 






Cristiane Silvestre de PaulaI; Carlo SchmidtI; Alessandra SeabraII

IEditors of the Special Section of Human Development
IIEditor of the journal Psychology: Theory and Practice



Dear readers,

It is with great satisfaction that we end the year of 2019 with the third issue of the twenty-first volume of the journal Psychology: Theory and Practice. Throughout its 21 years of existence, the journal has been consolidated as an essential vehicle for scientific communication in Brazil and has expanded its scope internationally. With the classification in the stratum A2 in the area of Psychology by the system Qualis, the journal contributes to the dissemination of scientific research in psychology and related areas.

In 2019, the 21st volume, with three numbers, presented 37 articles and one book review. In all the numbers we have international authorship, from Great Britain, Cuba, Portugal, and the United States of America. This year, 98% have already been made available in English, a strategy adopted by the journal to promote internationalization and increase the reach of our articles. In addition to international participation, we highlight that, throughout the three numbers of 2019, we had the participation of authors from four regions of Brazil, including the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso do Sul, Distrito Federal, Bahia, Ceará, Alagoas, and Piauí.

In the current number, 14 articles are presented, and the Special Section on "Human Development - Autism Spectrum Disorder" is highlighted.

In the "Psychological Assessment" section, there are three articles. The article "Screening version of Bender test to the assessment of school performance" was written by Fernanda Otoni and Fabián Javier M. Rueda, from the San Francisco University. The authors sought evidence of criterion validity for the screening version of the Bender - Gradual Scoring System, concerning school performance. It was observed that the group of children with poor school performance showed more distortion errors. There were also significant correlations between test performance and in the disciplines of Portuguese and Mathematics, which support the possibility of using this screening version in the evaluation of possible learning difficulties.

The second section article is entitled "Cultural adaptation of the Health Behavior Protocol in School-Aged Children for the Brazilian reality" and was written by Juliana Maltoni, from the University of São Paulo, Carolina S. de M. Lisboa, from the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Margarida G. de Matos, from the University of Lisbon, Maycoln L. M. Teodoro, from the Federal University of Minas Gerais, and Carmem Beatriz Neufeld, from the University of São Paulo. Given the importance of the adolescence period for development, the paper presented the process of translation and cultural adaptation of the instrument Health Behavior in School-aged Children, of the World Health Organization (HBSC-WHO) for the Brazilian reality. The processes of judges' translation, area evaluation committee, evaluation in the target audience and pilot study are described. The authors concluded that the translated and adapted instrument is adequate for the Brazilian reality.

The authors Adriana S. Ferraz, Acacia Aparecida A. dos Santos, from San Francisco University, and Leandro da S. Almeida, from the University of Minho, present the paper "Evidence of criterion validity for the Causal Attribution Scale." The paper presents evidence of concurrent criterion validity of the Causation Attribution Scale for Elementary School Students (EAVAT-EF). The scale has two factors, Causes for Success and Causes for Failure. The authors discuss the results of 927 students, from grades 3 to 9; the specificities of the teaching-learning process in the various levels of education; the interaction between the variables gender and grade retention on the results in the scale; and the relation between grade retention criteria and attributional beliefs.

The "Social Psychology" section has an article entitled "Social Skills Training (SST) for students facing social vulnerability," authored by Marisangela S. de Souza, from Salgado de Oliveira University, Adriana B. Soares, from University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, and Clarissa P. P. de Freitas, from Salgado de Oliveira University. In the study, the effects of Social Skills Training were verified in terms of social skills, behavior problems, and academic performance in grade 5 students. The intervention group obtained higher scores in all variables, and positive gains were observed for most students who took part in the intervention.

The "Psychology and Education" section has two articles. The article "School interventions for ADHD: A literature review (2000-2018)" was written by Waleska M. dos Santos and Alessandra R. de Albuquerque, both from the Catholic University of Brasilia. Since students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have high rates of school failure and dropout, the authors performed a literature review of interventions performed in the school setting for this population. The results of the review are described, and the presence of positive effects of intervention strategies on academic repertoires and typical of ADHD are discussed.

The article "Educational policies and psychology: A literature review" was written by Carolina M. Moraes, Leilanir de S. Carvalho, Tatiane dos S. Costa, Fauston Negreiros and Sandra Elisa de A. Freire, from the Federal University of Piaui. It is also a literature review that aimed at analyzing studies on educational policies and their relationship to school and educational psychology. The authors describe the articles they found, and discuss the results, concluding that the relationship between educational policies and school and educational psychology is still incipient.

In the "Clinical Psychology" section, there are three articles. The article "Coping strategies of caregivers of patients receiving palliative home care" is presented by Bruna Maffei, from the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Isabel Cristina de O. Arrieira, from Pelotas Federal University, Renata A. Ferreira, from Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, and Daniela H. Cardoso, from Pelotas Federal University. It aimed to understand the coping strategies of caregivers of patients in palliative care. Nine caregivers were heard, and the results are described and discussed. The authors point out that to take care of a relative is challenging, which can lead even to the caregiver falling ill. The needs of integrating the caregiver into the care of the team and of implementing educational actions for their health are discussed.

The second article in this section, "Effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy after treatment for adults with major depression," was written by Gessyka W. Veleda and Mariane L. Molina, both from Anhanguera College of Rio Grande and the Catholic University of Pelotas, Ricardo A. da Silva, from University of São Paulo and Catholic University of Pelotas, Karen Jansen, from Catholic University of Pelotas, Carmem Beatriz Neufeld, from University of São Paulo, and Luciano D. de M. Souza, from Catholic University of Pelotas. The article aimed to analyze the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic treatment with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) cases, in terms of keeping the results 6 and 12 months after the intervention. It was assessed by 94 participants with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). The results revealed a significant posttreatment response, with no difference between symptoms at the end of treatment and assessments at 6 and 12 months. There was also a significant positive correlation between the severity of the depressive symptoms at baseline and the reduction of depressive symptoms from the beginning to the 12-month evaluation.

The article "Methodological strategies for functional analysis and evaluation of obsessive-compulsive behavior" was written by Paola E. M. Almeida, Carolina M. Ortega, Helena D. Meletti, João Manoel Rodrigues Neto and Weslem M. Santos, from the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo. The aim was to identify controlling variables of obsessive-compulsive behaviors of an adult participant, based on three evaluation strategies: Indirect Functional Evaluation, Descriptive Functional Evaluation, and Functional Analysis Brief - Single Function Test. The authors discuss the relevance of adopting different assessment strategies in clinical work, as well as the fragility of interventions guided exclusively by verbal reports.

In the present number, a special section on "Human Development" is presented, whose theme is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The last decade has brought significant advancement to the field of ASD in Brazil and around the world. New studies, both qualitative and quantitative, according to epidemiological and clinical research in the areas of education, economics, and genetics, among others, allowed us to understand better this clinical scenario and its personal, family and social impacts.

The special section on ASD represents a task force of a group of researchers from different regions of Brazil, members of the Working Group of the National Association of Research and Graduate Studies in Psychology (Associação Nacional de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Psicologia - ANPEPP), entitled "Autism Spectrum Disorders: researches in health and education." This Working Group was established in 2014 and has since played an active role in different publications and scientific events.

This special section of the journal Psychology: Theory and Practice has six scientific articles in the areas of health and education on evidence-based practices for children/youth with ASD, including training models for health professionals and parents; intervention models according to autoscopy and self-regulation of learning; and aspects of communication, particularly on language regression and alternative communication.

The article "Current issues in epidemiological studies of autism" was written by Éric Fombonne, from Oregon Health & Science University, from the United States of America. The author presents improvements and issues in the field of autism epidemiology. The paper discusses current problems, such as the complex logistics of research, data collection and analysis; changes in nosographical systems and DSM-5, and the necessity of cross-cultural comparisons.

The article "Autoscopy as a methodological resource in the interventions with autism: Empirical aspects" was written by Carlo Schmidt, from the Federal University of Santa Maria, Leila Regina O. P. N. Santos, Thatyana M. Silva, from the University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, and Jéssica J. M. Oliveira, from Faculdades Integradas de Santa Maria. The objective was to present evidence of the effectiveness of the autoscopy procedure in autism interventions. The authors describe autoscopy, a methodological resource that includes video recording procedures with interventional practices, with the objective of analysis and self-assessment by one or more protagonists of this practice. Two studies were also analyzed, with teachers and mothers, revealing statistically significant effects of autoscopy, which corroborates the possibility of its use.

The article "Word loss trajectory in autism spectrum disorder: Analysis of home videos" was written by Bárbara Backes, from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Maria Cristina T. V. Teixeira, from the Mackenzie Presbyterian University, Tatiana P. Mecca, from the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Santa Casa of São Paulo, Decio Brunoni, from the Mackenzie Presbyterian University, Regina B. Zanon, from the Federal University of Grande Dourados, and Cleonice A. Bosa, from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. The study aimed to longitudinally describe a case of a 42-month-old child with ASD over ten months. Word loss and loss of other skills, such as play and social skills, were observed. Word loss was the first or main reason for parental concern, which corroborates the use of this phenomenon as a potential early indicator of ASD.

The fourth article in this special section is entitled "Implementing a community-based parent training behavioral intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder" and is presented by Leila F. Bagaiolo, Graccielle R. da Cunha, from the Federal University of São Paulo, Maria Luísa M. Nogueira, from the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Mariana Braido, from Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro and Santa Casa of Rio de Janeiro, Daniela Bordini, Tatiana N. D. Sasaki, from the Federal University of São Paulo, and Cláudia R. Pacífico, from the Hospital das Clínicas /University of São Paulo. The study aimed to train, based on Applied Behavior Analysis, caregivers of individuals with ASD. Results revealed a reduction in the disruptive behaviors of the children and the caregivers' depression and anxiety symptoms.

The authors Siglia Camargo, Andréia T. Leão, and Lourdes Maria B. Frison, from the Federal University of Pelotas, wrote the article "Communication of students with ASD: a self-regulation of learning based intervention." The objective was to investigate if an intervention, based on the self-regulation of learning in the context of the Specialized Educational Assistance, contributes to the increase in communication of the participants. The authors observed an increase in the frequency of non-verbal initiatives and the use of eye contact in response to communication partners in the Specialized Educational Service. However, there was no generalization of these gains to the context of the regular classroom.

The fifth article of the special section, "Autistic spectrum disorders in Brazilian primary care: telehealth and face-to-face training method," was written by Rosane Lowenthal, from the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Santa Casa de São Paulo, Luciana Silva Coltri, from the Mackenzie Presbyterian University, Claudio Torres Miranda, Jorge Arthur Peçanha de Miranda Coelho, from the Federal University of Alagoas, and Cristiane Silvestre de Paula, from Mackenzie Presbyterian University. The authors aimed to develop and evaluate a training model, via telehealth and face-to-face workshops, on ASD and child mental health for primary care doctors and nurses. Evaluation results pre and post-training revealed the acquisition of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice by doctors and nurses, which suggests the feasibility of training primary care professionals through interactive tele-education.

With the special section presented here, we hope that the published data will serve as tools for professionals, families, and people with ASD to make decisions following practices with evidence of effectiveness in our reality.

We once again thank all the support and trust we have received to make this number available - our gratitude to the authors, reviewers, team of editors, managers, and employees. We hope everyone enjoys reading the articles.

Yours sincerely,

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