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Winnicott e-prints

versão On-line ISSN 1679-432X

Winnicott e-prints vol.10 no.1 São Paulo  2015




Title: The Piggle: An account of Psychoanalytic Treatment of a Little Girl



The Translator's Word

The original title of this book is The Piggle: an Account of Psychoanalytic Treatment of a Little Girl, which is translated into Chinese as 《小猪猪:一个小女孩精神分析治疗过程的记录》. We have been interested in Winnicott's thoughts and clinical techniques for a long time and it is a great opportunity to have the chance to translate this book.

Last May, Professor Zeljko Loparic, the president of IWA (International Winnicott Association), and his wife, Dr. Elsa Oliveira Dias, came to China to travel. Mr. Qinwei from Shanghai suggested that we had an academic communication with these two teachers. After they arrived at Beijing, we arranged a case supervision seminar at VIP Psychological Clinic in Beijing Huilongguan Hospital. The therapist who participated in this supervision reported a patient of BPD who was accepting a long-term psychoanalytic treatment. That was the first time we were amazed by the supervision from the perspective of theories and clinic techniques of Winnicottian psychoanalysis. The original supervision of the two teachers deeply impressed our therapists who had been always accepting supervisions of teachers from Europe and America.

During lunch, we learned that Zeljko Loparic is professor of philosophy in State University of Campinas in São Paulo, Brazil, and he is also a researcher of theories of psychoanalysis, especially Winnicott's thoughts and theories. Dr. Elsa Oliveira Dias is a psychoanalyst who has been engaged in clinic work of psychoanalysis for 40 years. In 1990s, the couple founded São Paulo Winnicott School. Now there are many divisions in Brazil. Their group studies Winnicott's theories, trains and supervises analysts, and has case study seminars. They often lecture on Winnicott's theories and clinic techniques in Latin America, including Uruguay, Argentina and Peru, and Europe, including France and Portugal, and cultivated a large number of therapists of Winnicottian School.

In the history of development of theories and clinical practice of psychoanalysis, Winnicott's theories and clinical practice are called the "Middle Group" and are originated from Britain. For these several decades, however, the "Middle Group" has a momentum in South America. In 2000, Professor Loparic published the paper "Winnicott's Paradigm Outlined", and it was revised as "From Freud to Winnicott: A Paradigm Shift", which adopted the methodology of progress of scientific knowledge brought up by Thomas S. Kuhn. This paper established a solid ground for the general study of Winnicott's psychoanalysis by South American scholars. The researchers and clinic practitioners in South America, represented by Professor Loparic and Dr. Elsa, have done a large amount of work in summary and study of techniques and thoughts of Winnicott's psychoanalysis. The couple initiated and founded brazilian Winnicott Psychoanalysis Association in 2005, and the International Winnicott Association in 2012. Therefore, we decided to start the first Sino-Brazilian International Training Program on Winnicott's Psychoanalysis, in which we have a five-day lectures on theories and case supervisions each year and all for three years. Untill now, we have had courses of two years. Chinese learners like thoughts and clinic techniques of Winnicott's psychoanalysis and think it helps plentifully their clinical practice. The main aim we had to translate this book is to use it as part of the teaching materials of this training program.

Professor Loparic thinks that Winnicott made a revolutionary contribution to the development of psychoanalysis, either in theory or in innovation of clinic techniques. The basis of personality development theory in psychoanalysis has transferred and extended from the focus on the inner conflict of drives to the maturation and integration of inner life driven by interactive nurturing relationship between infant and environment. The pathogenesis of mental disorder has also shifted from the complex conflicts and defenses in the triangular Oedipus situation to the dependent pre-Oedipal relation of infant and mother and the emotional disturbance of ambivalent conflictual relationship. Those changes made the focus of consideration of mental disorder spectrum in clinic diagnostic a collective diversion from psychoneurosis to psychosis and borderline pathology position, which eventually led to the diversion of focus of clinical analytic techniques. It is a huge decrease of the traditional technique of interpretation on neurosis, a huge frequency increase of the use of holding, tolerance and management of psychopathology, and corresponding changes of treatment settings and neutral principle of psychoanalysis. These kinds of diversions require the therapist to be highly emotionally mature and stable (highly flexible in emotional adjustment), and to be highly sensitive towards and have deep understanding of the patients. Many of my colleagues and I have always had confusions caused by too much interpretation in many years of clinical treatment and supervision, and theories and supervision of Winnicott bring us a bright future. We decided to learn and popularize the thoughts of Winnicott's psychoanalysis.

Professor Loparic and Dr. Elsa told me The Piggle: an Account of Psychoanalytic Treatment of a Little Girl basically embodies the methods of Winnicott's psychoanalysis. This book may be used as a clinic guidebook of Winnicottian psychoanalysis. The process to translation this book started with the translation sentence by sentence; then, I gave the translated and original script to a psychoanalyst to revise word by word and sentence by sentence of the result so far; finally, I revised his revised part and collated the whole Chinese script. Wei Chenxi is a quite good clinical psychoanalytic therapist. He has been learning theories and treatment of psychoanalysis for many years and accepting my supervision. He is also my colleague, the trainee of Sino-Norway Training Program for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapists & Supervisors, and the English translator of Sino-Brazilian International Training Program OnWinnicott's Psychoanalysis.

The language of this book is simple and clear, there are many conversations. Obviously it has a colloquial style. It seems to be somehow easy at the first sight, but meanwhile it is a literal text transcript of psychoanalytic therapy by Winnicott. Every word he said and noted has abundant understanding and meaning of Winnicott's thoughts of psychoanalysis, which, for professional translator, is a huge challenge. When we were translating every word, we did not just focus on the literal meaning, but more on the understanding, aim and theoretical meaning of every sentence. Although next to main text, there were some notes by Winnicott, yet simple and few. I guess Winnicott did not want to give more interpretations on his own therapy, for he was reluctant to interfere readers' free and independent associations. He left a potential space for free association of the readers themselves. As he did not interpret frequently during treatment, he wanted to leave more potential space of creativity for readers to facilitate the emotional development of the patient.

In this case, the name of his little patient is Piggle. She was 2 years old and 4 months when she started to see Winnicott, and 5 years old and 2 months at the end of the treatment. They had a total of 16 sessions and the treatment lasted for 2 years and a half. Each session was 45 minutes. She was almost accompanied by her father to see Winnicott, but her father did not join the therapy and had a rest in the waiting room. It was Piggle who decided when to have the therapy sessions. Each time Piggle applied to her parents for therapy, then they called Winnicott to make an appointment, and eventually at the appointed hour her father took her to see Winnicott. At the end of the therapy, they did not make the next appointment. It was still Piggle who made the application to her parents when she felt it was necessary to see Dr.Winnicott. Winnicott called this of "therapy on demand". Winnicott had absolute charm and ability to attract Piggle to seek help and counseling, and enough patience and confidence to wait for Piggle's need and seeking of counseling, which amazed us. From that, we could see the change and feature of treatment setting in Winnicott's psychoanalysis.

There are a large number of conversations of kid's talking in this book. For many times, Piggle did not pronounce clearly. Sometimes she had self-created words and expressions. Winnicott kept them all in the original version. When we were translating, we tried to find the corresponding words in Chinese and kept the original English words. For example, we translated "babacar" into "爸爸轿车(papa's car)"; "bolly" is a word created by the little patient, meaning doing something in bathroom according to the situation, so we kept the word; and there are "bash (baa)", "such baba (苏萨巴巴)" etc. When reading and studying this treatment record, we suggest that readers should carefully consider the theoretical foundation and clinical operation basis of Winnicott's psychoanalysis behind the counseling conversations in combination with Winnicott's description. Readers can start their own free association, and think and understand creatively. This way could the learning and understanding become theoretical as well as interesting, which is also quite an important feature ofWinnicott's psychoanalysis.

We just began our systematic study and research of the clinic model of Winnicott's psychoanalysis. We are at the very entry level of understanding of Winnicott. We are looking forward to professionals who like and study Winnicott to communicate with us and point out the improper translationi.

I would like to take this opportunity to express my acknowledgment to Beijing Mental Health Facilitating Center, which has been the platform of teaching and supervision of psychoanalysis for all these years. I also want to express my appreciation to Ms. Lynn Meng, my counseling and academic assistant, who has been supporting me at work. Thanks for all those supervision opportunities that the therapists from Mental Health Facilitating Center and from junior group of Sino-Norway Training Program gave to me. Special thanks to Professor Loparic and Dr. Elsa, who teach me to understand Winnicott's thoughts of psychoanalysis, give us opportunities of case's supervision, and give guides to my translation. Finally yet importantly, special thanks to Ms. Yan Lan, the editor of the publishing house, who put a lot of hard work in this book.

Zhao Chengzhi

December, 12th, 2014, in Huilongguan, Beijing



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