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SMAD. Revista eletrônica saúde mental álcool e drogas

On-line version ISSN 1806-6976

SMAD, Rev. Eletrônica Saúde Mental Álcool Drog. (Ed. port.) vol.14 no.1 Ribeirão Preto Jan./Mar. 2018 

DOI: 10.11606/issn.1806-6976.smad.2018.000394


Influence of television media on alcohol consumption by university students


Influencia de los medios televisivos en el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas por universitários



Alana Oliveira PortoI; Marcela Andrade RiosI; Dieslley Amorim de SouzaI

IUniversidade do Estado da Bahia, Guanambi, BA, Brazil




The objective was to discuss the advertising of alcoholic beverages in the television media and the consumption of alcoholic drinks by university students, through an integrative literature review. The study was conducted with 25 articles from the LILACS and MEDLINE databases, published between 2011 and 2017. It has been verified that the reference to alcohol consumption on television has reached vulnerable groups, using several strategies that encourage this consumption. It is considered necessary to educate young people so that they exercise their criticality in the analysis of what is exposed by the media.

Descriptors: Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages; Advertising; University.


Se objetivó discutir la publicidad de bebidas alcohólicas en los medios televisivos y el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas por universitarios, a través de una revisión integrativa de literatura. El estudio fue realizado con 25 artículos de las bases de datos LILACS y MEDLINE, publicados entre los años 2011 y 2017. Se verificó que la referencia al consumo de alcohol en la televisión ha alcanzado a grupos vulnerables, utilizando de diversas estrategias que incentivan este consumo. Se considera necesario educar a los jóvenes de manera que éstos ejerzan su criticidad en el análisis de lo que es expuesto por los medios.

Descriptores: Consumo de Alcohol; Publicidad; Universidad.




The consumption of alcoholic beverages is a health risk behavior that accounts for about 2.5 million deaths per year. However, this product is well accepted socially, representing the most consumed psychoactive substance in the world(1).

Despite being a lawful drug, alcohol has the potential to cause various consequences to society, such as the occurrence of traffic accidents, assaults, unprotected sex, mental illness and death. Even with so many aggravating factors, their consumption continues to be indiscriminate and is on the rise in the younger age groups(2).

University students have a high prevalence of alcohol consumption(3), and this consumption is based on the idealization of socialization and later on the self-assertion of its independence since, at this stage, these young people experience a moment of autonomy and, consequently, they become more vulnerable to the consumption of alcohol(4).

Among alcoholic beverages, beer stands out as the most consumed and its use is associated with the possibility of relaxation, pleasure, disinhibition and to the idealization of the ease of socialization and link building(3). These beliefs about beer intake are strongly evoked by the media, through television marketing devices, inducing the consumer to associate alcohol consumption with fun moments and, thus, fantasizing a pseudo-reality(2,5).

Although the discussion about alcoholic beverage advertisements is not so recent, there are few policies to prevent consumption and restriction of alcohol marketing(5). According to Law No. 9,294, of July 15, 1996, it is forbidden to use alcohol-free drinks, sports, health, automobiles and sexual success, as well as mandatory" Products intended for adults "or commercial advertisements. However, there is the understanding that alcoholic beverage is only that has a alcohol content higher than 13 degrees Gay-Lussac (GL), in this sense, it is affirmed that beer is excluded from such restrictions since it has considerably inferior GL(6).

Compliance with this law is monitored by the Self-Regulation Board (NCSRA), which is a non-governmental body and presents, as a strategy, the theory of self-regulation, that refers to the control of advertising content based on corporate ethics. However, there are several violations of the restriction laws causing exposure of the public vulnerable to the consumption of alcoholic beverages(5).

When considering the rise of the consumption of alcoholic beverages by young people in the university environment and its consequences, this study aims to discuss the advertising of alcoholic beverages in the television media and the consumption of alcoholic beverages by university students from the scientific literature.



It is an integrative review of the literature in which it seeks to identify, in scientific publications, what is available on the influence of television media in the consumption of alcoholic beverages by university students. For this, the six steps were followed: establishment of the objective; establishment of criteria for inclusion and exclusion of articles (sample selection); definition of the information to be extracted from the selected articles; analysis of results; discussion and presentation of the results. The last step consisted in presenting the review(7).

The guiding question, for the elaboration of the integrative review, was constructed from the PICO strategy (P = population, I = intervention, C = control, O = outcomes) and consisted of: What are the influences exerted by the media in the consumption of beverages alcoholics by university students?

For the development of the study, electronic searches were conducted in the Virtual Health Library (VHL), in the Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and BDENF databases, using the descriptors in Sciences of the Health (DEC’s): "alcoholic beverages", "television", "propaganda" and "university", interrelated with the Boolean operator AND.

Inclusion criteria were complete, available, and indexed articles published in the period 2011 to 2017 and available in Portuguese and English.

In the first search, "alcoholic beverages" AND "television" were associated with the descriptors, resulting in 234 publications. After passing the inclusion criteria, 51 studies were obtained, but after reading the abstracts, this number decreased to 11.

In the second search, the descriptors "alcoholic beverages" AND "advertisement" were associated, resulting in 44 publications. After going through the inclusion criteria, there were five articles remaining, however, after reading the abstracts, this number decreased to two.

In the third search, were associated "alcoholic beverages" AND "university", which resulted in 2,022 publications. After going through the inclusion criteria, 44 studies remained, but after reading the abstracts, this number decreased to 12.

At the end of the searches, there were 25 articles (Figure 1) from which they were read in full in order to allow the thematic classification and analysis of the content.

An instrument for the collection of data was prepared, containing information related to the identification of the article, the type of publication, the methodological characteristics, main findings and to the classification of the level of evidence.

For the classification as to the power of evidence, we used the Hierarchical North American Classification of Evidence: level 1 - meta-analysis of multiple controlled studies; level 2 - individual study with experimental design; level 3 - study with quasi-experimental design as a study without randomization with single group pre and post-test, time series or control case; level 4 - study with non-experimental design as descriptive correlational and qualitative research or case studies; level 5 - report of cases or data obtained in a systematic, verifiable quality or program evaluation data; level 6 - opinion of reputable authorities based on clinical competence or opinion of expert committees, including interpretations of non-research based information(7).

The synthesis of the extracted data is presented in a descriptive way, contemplating the fifth and sixth stages of the integrative review. By means of Thematic or Categorical Analysis, type of Content Analysis technique, the division of the text into units (categories) was performed according to analogical systematic groupings.

The analysis consists of reading the twenty-five articles selected(8). Subsequently, we sought to discover the sense nuclei that make up the corpus of the study, worrying about the frequency of these nuclei, in the form of segmental and analogous data, where a new analysis was performed and from it emerged three categories, respectively: Determinants of the consumption of alcoholic beverages by university students, Policies restricting advertising of alcoholic beverages and Strategies of marketing of alcoholic beverage companies.



For the integrative review, 25 articles were analyzed, read in full and that met the inclusion criteria and the previously established objective. Among the articles found, the difference in distribution in the databases was minimal, 13 (52%) available in LILACS and 12 (48%) available in MEDLINE. For the year, the highest number of publications occurred in 2014 (24%) followed by 2012 and 2015, with 20% in both, 2013 and 2016, with 12% in both, 2011 (8%) and 2017 (4%).

All studies were linked to a higher education institution, and four (16%) came from the Federal University of São Paulo; two (8%) from Boston University; two (8%) from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; two (8%) from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul; two (8%) from the State University of Rio de Janeiro; one (4%) from the University of Newcastle; one (4%) from the University of Nottingham; one (4%) from the University of Akron; one (4%) from the University of Manchester; one (4%) from the Dartmouth Medical School; one (4%), from the State University of Campinas; one (4%), from the State University of Ceará; one (4%), from the State University of Montes Claros; one (4%), from the Federal University of Minas Gerais; one (4%) of the National Cancer Institute José Alencar Gomes da Silva; one (4%) from Deakin University; one (4%) of the Norris Cotton Cancer Center and one (4%) came from the Federal University of Alfenas.

The list of selected international and national studies for the construction of this review is available in Figure 2 and Figure 3 respectively.

As the above data points out, there were studies of different nationalities and the different aspects are clear, since international studies, 11 (44%) bring an approach to the relation between television and alcohol consumption, as can be seen in Figure 2. In the national studies, 14 (56%), it is noted that the main discussion is focused on alcohol consumption in the university environment, since only two studies (14.2%) discuss the relation between television media versus alcohol consumption, as portrayed Figure 3.



Based on the analysis of the results, it was observed that, although studies were not found that directly addressed the influence of television media in the consumption of alcoholic beverages and its relation with the specific group of university students, it was possible to note that the media, generally, have a considerable power of persuasion and that, in the case of television, its power is strengthened, since it reaches a larger number of people simultaneously, including vulnerable groups. Thus, from the results, three categories emerged that deal with the factors associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages by college students, the alcohol restriction advertising policies and the alcohol marketing strategies.

Determinants of alcohol consumption by university students

The consumption of alcoholic beverages is, historically, a common behavior of society, being associated with sociocultural factors. Studies show that this consumption is based on the influence of consumption by family, friends, the media, as well as college entrance, and the latter is a propitious factor for alcohol intake, since college students experience a moment freedom and autonomy to make decisions without the supervision or guidance of the parents or guardians(2,9-10).

The insertion of young people in the university environment makes them vulnerable to several risk behaviors characteristic of the population group(9). Because it is a moment of autonomy, which is not always accompanied by responsibility, most university students have a consumption pattern of alcoholic beverages exaggerated, which can be associated with frequent problems in this environment such as unprotected sex, fights, drunken driving, accidents, social losses and even compromised academic performance(10-11). Despite the risks, consumption has increased because they are young and free trade(12).

Historically, alcohol consumption has a greater relation with the male population, being this association in quantity and quality. However, the women have presented alteration in the behavior against the consumption of alcoholic beverages, becoming target population to be conquered by the media market, therefore, has increased its consumption, both in frequency, and in volume(10).

Studies carried out with academics on the motivation of alcohol consumption point out that these young people drink for the purpose of having fun, together, with their friends, since the perception that these individuals have about alcohol is that their consumption can provide the subject with social interaction, joy, self-esteem, relaxation and pleasure, as well as having immediate effect(4,11,13-15). Still, the consumption of alcoholic beverages may be associated with other drugs and represents for students a way to ease the stress caused by graduation, favoring affective relationships, affirmation of freedom and pervading the socio-cultural constructions of gender(15).

Another incentive for alcohol consumption is advertising, that brings with it elements capable of producing, in young people, the need to obtain what is shown, so that they consume the product by paying attention to the ads, in the belief that commercials of alcoholic beverages reproduce a reality, from the similarity between the festivals frequented by these and those exhibited in the commercials(5). There is, also, an association of advertising with the preference of a specific brand, as it presents studies in which it was verified that the brands of alcoholic beverages not announced in 20 television programs were not consumed, while the advertised drinks were consumed about four times more than usual(16-17).

The practice of binge drinking, a mode of consumption in which the individual ingests a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time also presents itself as a determinant in the consumption of alcoholic beverage(2,13,18-19). This practice was observed in 32.1% of the drinkers surveyed in a study that reported exposure to the risk of developing problems related to the consumption of this substance. Therefore, in addition to the high prevalence of alcohol consumption, the amount of alcohol consumed is a concern the bio-psycho-social health of consumers(15,20).

Advertising restriction policies for alcoholic beverages

The elaboration of advertising restrictions for alcoholic beverages is the responsibility of each country, and it is possible to restrict advertisements through legal control through laws, through self-regulation through the control established by the ethics of the company itself or both(21). Thus, there are nations that are more judicious in this regard, such as the United Kingdom, Germany, and the Netherlands, which have a range of control policies related to the consumption of alcoholic beverages(22).

In order to protect the most vulnerable people from the potential effects of marketing alcoholic beverages, Australia uses the Alcoholic Beverages Advertising (and Packaging) Code Scheme (ABAC), which consists of regulations based on the following stages: self- authorization and public adjudication. However, violations of the established codes are not subject to legal sanctions(23). In addition, the country is covered by advertising restriction codes, which include some restrictions on alcohol advertising, but, it is found that nonetheless, the vulnerable public is reached(23).

In Brazil, Law 9.294, of July 15, 1996, which regulates advertising and advertising of alcoholic beverages and other products, is considered to be alcoholic beverages with alcohol content above thirteen degrees Gay-Lussac (°GL), thus, excluding wines and beers(5,21). Thus, free from enforcement actions, the breweries are the main ones to ignore the social losses caused by the exaggerated consumption of beer, being one of the largest investors in advertisements.

In addition to the aforementioned law, in Brazil, there is the National Council for Self-Regulatory Advertising (NCSRA), which is a nongovernmental body created by advertisers in an attempt to avoid governmental measures prohibiting advertising, using a system of control based on ethics, self-regulation, presented as an alternative between the detriment of advertisers / consumer rights competition versus the regulatory delegation of rulers, since their legislative actions do not always demonstrate to understand the cunning of commercial advertising(5,21).

The NCSRA is an important strategy, since it emphasizes that advertising should not reach the children / young audience, nor is it allowed to induce abusive consumption of products, as well as the association with sexual images, healthy performance and sports, besides Respect restriction of schedules and addition of warnings in ads(5). However, while self-regulation aims to reduce the damage caused by alcohol, in practice it brings little protection to the vulnerable public due to frequent violation of codes by the alcohol industries that enables subjective interpretations, reaches illegal audiences and encourages consumption irresponsible, as well as studies carried out in different nations(16,19,21-22).

A study on perceived violation of alcohol advertising rules shows that 75% of respondents identified a breach of at least one of the sixteen rules of the Advertising Standards Authority of Broadcast Publicity (BCAP), a code adopted in the United Kingdom to prevent advertisements irresponsible(24). Other studies corroborate the information and add that alcoholic beverage advertisements are actually targeted at young audiences by confirming the notion that advertising regulations have not been effective in limiting young people to exposure to alcoholic beverage advertising on television and, consequently, media has influenced the behavior of viewers(16,19,22,25).

When analyzing the positioning of alcoholic beverages companies regarding the advertising regulations of the product, as well as its updates to protect the vulnerable public, especially children and adolescents, the industry was resistant, under the following allegations: 1- The regulation is redundant; 2- The evidence that marketing of alcoholic beverages influences the increase in consumption is insufficient, 3- The increase of regulation leads to unintended consequences such as difficulty of the company to remain in commerce and loss of consumers; 4- Inconsistency in law, when they consider that a Regulatory Impact Statement has not been presented before the proposed regulatory review, and 5- Have social responsibility, as they strive to reduce harmful consumption through conscious programs and campaigns, for example(23).

Marketing strategies of alcoholic beverage companies

The advertising of alcoholic companies seeks, from their well-designed and applied advertisements, to influence the recipient of the message to consume their products. It is believed that one of the major strategies would be to take advantage of the complexity of rules and failures in self-regulation control to increase sales and reach new consumers, so commercial alcohol ads are being increasingly targeted, to young people, accompanied by the incentive to drink(21).

A study conducted to verify the adequacy of TV transmissions in relation to guidelines for risk behaviors, such as violence, sexual behavior, alcohol consumption and smoking, showed that alcohol was present in 58% of the programs in general, in 7.2 seconds per minute, (P <0.001), with prevalence lower only to references for violence(26).

Although consumption is predominantly male, women are increasingly using alcoholic beverages and, are likely to reach men in the prevalence of alcohol consumption(2,11). The change in this context of consumption may be related to the changes in the cultural attitude, as well as in the commitment of the media to reach new public.

The influence of alcohol advertising affects people of all age groups and especially, minors due to the longer exposure to the television media, and consequently the marketing of the product. These stimulate the viewer’s imagination to the creation of a pseudo-reality, seeking to associate what is exposed by the media with what is experienced by individuals(5). In this sense, one observes the perspective of the reality sought by the young people, who believe that they achieve benefits through consumption, among them, self-desire, fun with friends and celebrations(3-4,14).

Although alcohol companies deny the promotion of their products to young people, it is commonly seen on television demonstrating such beverages in various popular programs for the specific age group, thus contributing to increasingly precocious consumption(27-28). A study conducted in Australia in 2012 points out that viewers who watch television at an earlier time are between five and 29 years of age, with a larger number of children ages zero to four. Individuals with higher ages (18 to 29 years) were only prevalent between 20.30 and 11:50 p.m., and even at that time, the number of underage viewers was higher(28).

The efforts of alcoholic beverages companies are tireless in pursuit of profit, commercial expansion and brand loyalty through high investments in the marketing of their products and generous sponsorships to the events. Thus, of the different strategies used to achieve its purpose, it is also highlighted the association of alcohol with cultures prestigious by the population. In Brazil, for example, drinks are related to football and carnival, while in the United States it is associated with the league of baseball and basketball championships, modalities characteristic in the country(5,21,28).

A study that aimed to determine the frequency and nature of visual references to alcohol in a sample of EURO2012 consignments transmitted in the United Kingdom identified that in 1487 minutes of transmission, a total of 1846 visual references to alcohol were identified, corresponding to an average of 1.24 visual references per minute of transmission and, considering the worldwide repercussion of the event, this strategy has the potential to reach the global audience(29).

In this attempt, it is evident the interest game of alcoholic beverages companies, when they associate their products with sports, sponsoring these events and exposing alcohol to a large population without restriction of time and public, as corroborates another study that reports that The distribution of innuendoes for alcoholic beverages was present in several genres and in more than half of all telenovelas and feature films, highlighting the proportion of alcohol use intervals that were significantly higher at times of higher audience abroad, that is, 6:00 p.m. at 10:00 p.m(27-28).



This study evidenced that the advertisements of alcoholic beverages published in the television media exert influence on the consumption of the product from the use of elements that arouse, in the young person, the interest in experiencing what is shown to them, such as socialization, fun, freedom, women and others.

To ensure profitability of alcoholic beverage companies, advertisements are increasingly attractive in order to win new consumers. In view of the good acceptance of alcoholic beverages and the vulnerability of university students to irresponsible consumption, it is considered the need to use some alternatives to at least protect the vulnerable population, such as educating young people in order to analysis of what is exposed by the media, as well as oversee advertising restriction policies.



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Received: May 26th 2017
Accepted: Aug 8th 2018

Corresponding author:
Alana Oliveira Porto

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